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Hindu Calendar

MarkspacerAlmanac 1900 => 2100


MarkspacerPlanetary Motions

MarkspacerIndian Astronomers

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Everyday Panchangam

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Editorial Notes

All the contents of our portal are based upon the Vedic guidance rendered by the great sages, scholars and learned authors through sastras, satsangs, literature, books and advices. However the practice of the same is to done by the individuals as per their own best judgment. We do not guarantee or assure the correctness of the contents by the scale of the so called modern science.

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Planetary Motions

Sun's Motion

Diurnal Motion E to W at about 360°/day

Length of day using Meridian Crossing

Solar Day

Sidereal day

Annual Motion of Sun w.r.t. stars is

about 1°/day W to E







The Moon moves about 13°/day w.r.t. the stars, on a path near, but not on, the ecliptic. The inclination of the moons orbit to the ecliptic varies somewhat from year to year, but is approximately 5°. The intersection of the Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic defines the Line of Nodes. The Ascending Node is that which the moon passes through when going through the ecliptic from south to north, while at the descending node it goes through the ecliptic from north to south.


As the Moon travels around the earth, we see various degrees of its surface illuminated, what we call phases.


Due to the fact the Earth moves around the Sun as the Moon orbits the Earth, the length of time it takes for the moon to pass through all of its phases is slightly longer that its true orbital period in space. We therefore distinguish between the Sidereal (true orbit) Period - 27.3 days, and the Synodic Period - 29.5 days. One way of thinking of this is that it takes 27.3 days for the moon to line up with the same star in the sky, but in the meantime, the sun has moved a little bit, so, for example at New Moon, it takes longer for the Moon to catch up to the Sun.

Looking at how this is seen deom the vantage point of the earth:


Note: The Vernal Equinox is chosen as the zero point for RA. Precession changes the RA, DEC of an object with time.


Seasons are NOT due to variations in the earth-Sun distance, but due to the obliquity of the ecliptic.



When the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun, we may see a Solar Eclipse. When the Moon passes into the shadow cast by the Earth, we get a Lunar Eclipse. If an observer is located inside the Umbra, where the light from the Sun is totally blocked out, they would see a Total Solar Eclipse. If some sunlight is visible, the observer is in the Penumbra, and it is a Partial Solar Eclipse. Due to the varying distance of the Moon from the Earth, sometimes its shadow does not reach the surface of the earth, and and a narrow ring or annulus of the Sun is visible - an Annular Eclipse. Similarly, the Moon can be totally within the Earth's Umbra (total lunar eclipse) or not (partial lunar eclipse). Notice that when a total lunar eclipse occurs, it is visible from half the Earth, while only a small part of the earth can witness a total solar eclipse.


Furthermore, because of the tilt of the Moon's orbit w.r.t. the ecliptic, an eclipse does not occur at every new or full phase. It can only happen when the Moon is near the ecliptic (near one of the nodes).





1. Planets usually move W to E with respect to stars - Direct Motion
2. Sometimes move E to W w.r.t. stars - Retrograde Motion
3. Always near the ecliptic (but not always on it).
4. All reach Conjunction with the Sun
5. Not all reach Opposition Mercury - 23° maximum elongation from Sun Venus - 46° maximum elongation from Sun
6. Mars, Jupiter, Saturn are brightest at Opposition


Significance of Siva

The Trident and the Snakes

The Ganges

Siva and his family


Siva and His Titles

Siva and Tantra

Aspects of Lord Siva

Siva Murthy

Siva As Nataraja


Siva Pariwar

Famous Saints of Saivism

Samkara and Shankara

Shankara, the destroyer

Siva and the NayanMars


Significance of Narayana

Symbols of Vishnu

Garuda and Adisesha

The Ideal King and Ideal Man

Lord Krishna

Concept of Avatars

Matsya & Kurma

Varaha Avatar

Narashima Avatar

Vamana & Parusurama

Rama & Krishna

Buddha & Kalki

Mother of Universe

Devi: The Great Goddess

Devi, The Creator

Parvati, Durga & Sakthi

Lakshmi, Goddess of Wealth

Saraswati, Vidya Devi

The beloved Gods