India´s Contributions Acknowledged
"We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count,
without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been
made."  Albert Einstein.
Astronomy, geography, constellation science and
mathematics
India invented the Zero, without which there would be no
binary system. No computers! Counting would be clumsy and
cumbersome! The earliest recorded date, an inscription of Zero on
Sankheda Copper Plate was found in Gujarat, India (585586 CE).
In BrahmaPhutaSiddhanta of Brahmagupta (7th century CE), the
Zero is lucidly explained and was rendered into Arabic books
around 770 CE. From these it was carried to Europe in the 8th
century. However, the concept of Zero is referred to as Shunya in
the early Sanskrit texts of the 4th century BCE and clearly
explained in Pingala´s Sutra of the 2nd century.
Sage Aryabhatt (b. 476 CE) wrote texts on astronomy and
mathematics. He formulated the process of calculating the motion
of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to
proclaim the earth was round, rotating on an axis, orbiting the
sun and suspended in space. This was around 1,000 years before
Copernicus. He was a geometry genius credited with calculating pi
to four decimal places, developing the trigonomic sine table and
the area of a triangle. Perhaps his most important contribution
was the concept of the zero. Details are found in Shulva sutra.
Other sages of mathematics include Baudhayana, Katyayana, and
Apastamba.
Varahamihr (499  587 CE) was another eminent astronomer. In
his book, Panschsiddhant, he noted that the moon and planets
shine due to the sun. Many of his other contributions captured in
his books Bruhad Samhita and Bruhad Jatak, were in the fields of
geography, constellation science, botany and animal science. For
example he presented cures for various diseases of plants and
trees.
Knowledge of botany (VrkshAyurveda) dates back more than
5,000 years, discussed in India's Rig Veda. Sage Parashara
(100 BCE) is called the "father of botany" because he
classified flowering plants into various families, nearly 2,000
years before Lannaeus (the modern father of taxonomy). Parashara
described plant cells  the outer and inner walls, sap
colormatter and something not visible to the eye  anvasva.
Nearly 2,000 years later Robert Hooke, using a microscope
described the outer and inner wall and sap colormatter.
Algebra, arithmetic and geometry, planetary positions,
eclipses, cosmography, and mathematical techniques. force of
gravity
In the field of mathematics, Bhaskaracharya II (1114  1183
CE) contributed to the fields of algebra, arithmetic and
geometry. Two of his most well known books are Lilavati and
Bijaganita, which are translated in several languages of the
world. In his book, Siddhant Shiromani, he expounds on planetary
positions, eclipses, cosmography, and mathematical techniques.
Another of his books, Surya Siddhant discusses the force of
gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton. Sage Sridharacharya
developed the quadratic equation around 991 CE.
The Decimal
Ancient India invented the decimal scale using base 10. They
numbernames to denote numbers. In the 9th century CE, an Arab
mathematician, AlKhwarizmi, learned Sanskrit and wrote a book
explaining the Hindu system of numeration. In the 12th century CE
the book was translated into Latin. The British used this
numerical system and credited the Arabs  mislabelling it
'Arabic numerals'. "We owe a lot to the Indians, who
taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific
discovery could have been made."  Albert Einstein.
Geometry
Invention of Geometry
The word Geometry seems to have emerged from the Indian word
'Gyaamiti´ which means measuring the Earth. And the
word Trigonometry is similar to 'Trikonamiti´ meaning
measuring triangular forms. Euclid is credited with the invention
of Geometry in 300 BCE while the concept of Geometry in India
emerged in 1000 BCE, from the practice of making fire altars in
square and rectangular shapes. The treatise of Surya Siddhanta
(4th century CE) describes amazing details of Trigonometry, which
were introduced to Europe 1200 years later in the 16th century by
Briggs.
The Value of PI in India
The ratio of the circumference and the diameter of a circle
are known as Pi, which gives its value as 3,1428571. The old
Sanskrit text Baudhayana Shulba Sutra of the 6th century BCE
mentions this ratio as approximately equal to 3. Aryabhatta in
499, CE worked the value of Pi to the fourth decimal place as
3.1416. Centuries later, in 825 CE Arab mathematician Mohammed
Ibna Musa says that "This value has been given by the Hindus
(Indians)".
Pythagorean Theorem or Baudhayana Theorem?
The socalled Pythagoras Theorem  the square of the
hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle equals the sum of the
square of the two sides  was worked out earlier in India by
Baudhayana in Baudhayana Sulba Sutra. He describes: "The
area produced by the diagonal of a rectangle is equal to the sum
of the area produced by it on two sides." Note: Greek
writers attributed the theorem of Euclid to Pythagoras.
Indian astronomers have been mapping the skies for 3500
years.
1000 Years Before Copernicus
Copernicus published his theory of the revolution of the Earth
in 1543. A thousand years before him, Aryabhatta in 5th century
(400500 CE) stated that the Earth revolves around the sun,
"just as a person travelling in a boat feels that the trees
on the bank are moving, people on earth feel that the sun is
moving". In his treatise Aryabhatteeam, he clearly states
that our earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun
and is suspended in space and explains that lunar and solar
eclipses occur by the interplay of the sun, the moon and the
earth.
The Law of Gravity  1200 Years Before Newton
The Law of Gravity was known to the ancient Indian astronomer
Bhaskaracharya. In his Surya Siddhanta, he notes:
"Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by
the earth. therefore, the earth, the planets, constellations, the
moon and the sun are held in orbit due to this
attraction".
It was not until the late 17th century in 1687, 1200 years
later, that Sir Isaac Newton rediscovered the Law of Gravity.
Measurement of Time
In Surya Siddhanta, Bhaskaracharya calculates the time taken
for the earth to orbit the sun to 9 decimal places.
Bhaskaracharya = 365.258756484 days.
Modern accepted measurement = 365.2596 days.
Between Bhaskaracharya´s ancient measurement 1500 years
ago and the modern measurement the difference is only 0.00085
days, only 0.0002%.
34000TH of a Second to 4.32 Billion Years
India has given the idea of the smallest and the largest
measure of time.
Krati Krati = 34,000th of a second
1 Truti = 300th of a second
2 Truti = 1 Luv
2 Luv = 1 Kshana
30 Kshana = 1 Vipal
60 Vipal = 1 Pal
60 Pal = 1 Ghadi (24 minutes)
2.5 Gadhi = 1 Hora (1 hour)
24 Hora = 1 Divas (1 day)
7 Divas = 1 saptaah (1 week)
4 Saptaah = 1 Maas (1 month)
2 Maas = 1 Rutu (1 season)
6 Rutu = 1 Varsh (1 year)
100 Varsh = 1 Shataabda (1 century)
10 Shataabda = 1 sahasraabda
432 Sahasraabda = 1 Yug (Kaliyug)
2 Yug = 1 Dwaaparyug
3 Yug = 1 Tretaayug
4 Yug = 1 Krutayug
10 Yug = 1 Mahaayug (4,320,000 years)
1000 Mahaayug = 1 Kalpa
1 Kalpa = 4.32 billion years
Mathematics
The Decimal
100BCE the Decimal system flourished in India
"It was India that gave us the ingenious method of
expressing all numbers by means of ten symbols (Decimal
System)….a profound and important idea which escaped the
genius of Archimedes and Apollonius, two of the greatest men
produced by antiquity."
La Place
Raising 10 to the Power of 53
The highest prefix used for raising 10 to a power in
today´s maths is 'D´ for 10 to a power of 30
(from Greek Deca). While, as early as 100 BCE Indian
Mathematicians had exact names for figures upto 10 to the power
of 53.
ekam =1
dashakam =10
shatam =100 (10 to the power of 10)
sahasram =1000 (10 power of 3)
dashasahasram =10000 (10 power of 4)
lakshaha =100000 (10 power of 5)
dashalakshaha =1000000 (10 power of 6)
kotihi =10000000 (10 power of 7)
ayutam =1000000000 (10 power of 9)
niyutam = (10 power of 11)
kankaram = (10 power of 13)
vivaram = (10 power of 15)
paraardhaha = (10 power of 17)
nivahaaha = (10 power of 19)
utsangaha = (10 power of 21)
vyavasthaana

bahulam = (10 power of 23)
naagbaalaha = (10 power of 25)
titilambam = (10 power of 27)
pragnaptihi = (10 power of 29)
hetuheelam = (10 power of 31)
karahuhu = (10 power of 33)
hetvindreeyam = (10 power of 35)
samaapta lambhaha = (10 power of 37)
gananaagatihi) = (10 power of 39)
niravadyam = (10 power of 41)
mudraabaalam = (10 power of 43)
sarvabaalam = (10 power of 45)
vishamagnagatihi = (10 power of 47)
sarvagnaha = (10 power of 49)
vibhutangamaa = (10 power of 51)
tallaakshanam = (10 power of 53)  (In Anuyogdwaar Sutra written in 100 BCE one
numeral is raised as high as 10 to the power of 140).
